Jefferson County, AL

County

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2020 Population
658,615
0.161% 1-year decline
US Senator
Richard Shelby
Republican Party
US Senator
Tommy Tuberville
Republican Party
2020 Median Age
37.9
0.531% 1-year increase
2020 Poverty Rate
15.7%
2.24% 1-year decrease
2020 Median Household Income
$55,088
2.2% 1-year growth
2020 Median Property Value
$165,000
3.71% 1-year growth
2020 Employed Population
302,092
0.951% 1-year decline

About

In 2020, Jefferson County, AL had a population of 659k people with a median age of 37.9 and a median household income of $55,088. Between 2019 and 2020 the population of Jefferson County, AL declined from 659,680 to 658,615, a −0.161% decrease and its median household income grew from $53,901 to $55,088, a 2.2% increase.

The 5 largest ethnic groups in Jefferson County, AL are White (Non-Hispanic) (49.6%), Black or African American (Non-Hispanic) (42.8%), White (Hispanic) (1.83%), Two+ (Non-Hispanic) (1.77%), and Asian (Non-Hispanic) (1.57%).

None of the households in Jefferson County, AL reported speaking a non-English language at home as their primary shared language. This does not consider the potential multi-lingual nature of households, but only the primary self-reported language spoken by all members of the household.

97.5% of the residents in Jefferson County, AL are U.S. citizens.

The largest universities in Jefferson County, AL are University of Alabama at Birmingham (5,956 degrees awarded in 2020), Samford University (1,742 degrees), and Jefferson State Community College (1,284 degrees).

In 2020, the median property value in Jefferson County, AL was $165,000, and the homeownership rate was 63.2%. Most people in Jefferson County, AL drove alone to work, and the average commute time was 24.3 minutes. The average car ownership in Jefferson County, AL was 2 cars per household.

About the photo: Birmingham, AL

Diversity

Jefferson County, AL is home to a population of 659k people, from which 97.5% are citizens. As of 2020, 3.85% of Jefferson County, AL residents were born outside of the country (25.3k people).

In 2020, there were 1.16 times more White (Non-Hispanic) residents (327k people) in Jefferson County, AL than any other race or ethnicity. There were 282k Black or African American (Non-Hispanic) and 12k White (Hispanic) residents, the second and third most common ethnic groups.

Race and Ethnicity

Race and Ethnicity

The 3 largest ethnic groups in Jefferson County, AL
  1. White (Non-Hispanic)
    327k ± 457
  2. Black or African American (Non-Hispanic)
    282k ± 1.27k
  3. White (Hispanic)
    12k ± 1.24k
3.91%
Hispanic Population
25.8k people

In 2020, there were 1.16 times more White (Non-Hispanic) residents (327k people) in Jefferson County, AL than any other race or ethnicity. There were 282k Black or African American (Non-Hispanic) and 12k White (Hispanic) residents, the second and third most common ethnic groups.

3.91% of the people in Jefferson County, AL are hispanic (25.8k people).

The following chart shows the 7 races represented in Jefferson County, AL as a share of the total population.

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Heritage

Foreign-Born Population

3.85%
2020 Foreign-Born Population
25.3k people
4.09%
2019 Foreign-Born Population
27k people

As of 2020, 3.85% of Jefferson County, AL residents (25.3k people) were born outside of the United States, which is lower than the national average of 13.5%. In 2019, the percentage of foreign-born citizens in Jefferson County, AL was 4.09%, meaning that the rate has been decreasing.

The following chart shows the percentage of foreign-born residents in Jefferson County, AL compared to that of it's neighboring and parent geographies.

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Age by Nativity

38
Median Native-Born Age
± 0.2
39
Median Foreign-Born Age
± 0.7

In 2020, the median age of all people in Jefferson County, AL was 37.9. Native-born citizens, with a median age of 38, were generally younger than foreign-born citizens, with a median age of 39. But people in Jefferson County, AL are getting getting older. In 2019, the average age of all Jefferson County, AL residents was 38.

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Global Diversity

The PUMS dataset is not available at the County level, so we are showing data for Alabama.
Most Common Origin
  1. Mexico
    47,080 ± 5,301 people
  2. Guatemala
    12,910 ± 2,786 people
  3. India
    10,249 ± 2,483 people

In 2020, the most common birthplace for the foreign-born residents of Alabama was Mexico, the natal country of 47,080 Alabama residents, followed by Guatemala with 12,910 and India with 10,249.

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Citizenship

97.5%
2020 Citizenship
97.3%
2019 Citizenship

As of 2020, 97.5% of Jefferson County, AL residents were US citizens, which is higher than the national average of 93.4%. In 2019, the percentage of US citizens in Jefferson County, AL was 97.3%, meaning that the rate of citizenship has been increasing.

The following chart shows US citizenship percentages in Jefferson County, AL compared to that of it's neighboring and parent geographies.

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Military

Veterans

Most Common Service Period
  1. Vietnam
    11,943 ± 815
  2. Gulf War (2001-)
    6,498 ± 807
  3. Gulf War (1990s)
    5,706 ± 584

Jefferson County, AL has a large population of military personnel who served in Vietnam, 1.84 times greater than any other conflict.

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COVID-19

Daily New Cases by Date

Showing data at the state level for Alabama. Hospitalization data for some states may be delayed or not reported.
Y-Axis

This chart shows the number of COVID-19 daily new cases by date in Alabama, as a 7-day rolling average, compared with the four states with the most similar number of confirmed cases.

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Unemployment Insurance Claims

Data is only available at the state level. Showing data for Alabama.

This chart shows weekly unemployment insurance claims in Alabama (not-seasonally adjusted) compared with the four states with the most similar impact.

The most recent data point uses Advance State Claims data, which can be revised in subsequent weeks.

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Employment by Industry Sector

Data is only available at the state level. Showing data for Alabama.
Y-Axis
8.45%
Year-over-year growth
Employment change between May 2020 and May 2021

As of May 2021, there are 145M people employed in Alabama. This represents a 8.45% increase in employment when compared to May 2020.

The following chart shows monthly employment numbers for each industry sector in Alabama.

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Community Mobility

Data is only available at the state level. Showing data for Alabama.

This chart presents movement trends over time in the state of Alabama across different categories of places such as retail and recreation, groceries and pharmacies, parks, transit stations, workplaces, and residential.

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Economy

Median household income in Jefferson County, AL is $55,088. In 2020, the tract with the highest Median Household Income in Jefferson County, AL was Census Tract 129.05 with a value of $186,818, followed by Census Tract 107.03 and Census Tract 108.04, with respective values of $181,071 and $166,473.

Males in Alabama have an average income that is 1.44 times higher than the average income of females, which is $44,111. The income inequality in Alabama (measured using the Gini index) is 0.458, which is lower than than the national average.

The economy of Jefferson County, AL employs 302k people. The largest industries in Jefferson County, AL are Health Care & Social Assistance (50,659 people), Retail Trade (32,835 people), and Manufacturing (27,259 people), and the highest paying industries are Utilities ($74,835), Mining, Quarrying, & Oil & Gas Extraction ($69,236), and Professional, Scientific, & Technical Services ($67,132).

Wages

Median Household Income

$55,088
2020 value
± $1,091
2.2%
1 Year Growth
± 2.26%

Households in Jefferson County, AL have a median annual income of $55,088, which is less than the median annual income of $64,994 across the entire United States. This is in comparison to a median income of $53,901 in 2019, which represents a 2.2% annual growth.

The following chart shows how the median household income in Jefferson County, AL compares to that of its neighboring and parent geographies.

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Wage by Sex in Common Jobs

The PUMS dataset is not available at the County level, so we are showing data for Alabama.
$63,401
Average Male Salary in Alabama
± $1,583
$44,111
Average Female Salary in Alabama
± $1,091

In 2020, full-time male employees in Alabama made 1.44 times more than female employees.

This chart shows the sex-based wage disparity in the 5 most common occupations in Alabama by number of full-time employees.

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Wage by Race and Ethnicity in Common Jobs

The PUMS dataset is not available at the County level, so we are showing data for Alabama.
Highest Average Salaries by Race & Ethnicity in Alabama
  1. Asian
    $63,120 ± $11,157
  2. White
    $52,572 ± $1,171
  3. American Indian
    $40,602 ± $8,445

In 2020 the highest paid race/ethnicity of Alabama workers was Asian. These workers were paid 1.2 times more than White workers, who made the second highest salary of any race/ethnicity in Alabama.

This chart shows the race- and ethnicity-based wage disparities in the 5 most common occupations in Alabama by number of full-time employees.

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Wage Distribution

The closest comparable wage GINI for Jefferson County, AL is from Alabama.
0.458
2020 Wage GINI in Alabama
0.459
2019 Wage GINI in Alabama

In 2020, the income inequality in Alabama was 0.458 according to the GINI calculation of the wage distribution. Income inequality had a 0.32% decline from 2019 to 2020, which means that wage distribution grew somewhat more even. The GINI for Alabama was lower than than the national average of 0.478. In other words, wages are distributed more evenly in Alabama in comparison to the national average.

This chart shows the number of workers in Alabama across various wage buckets compared to the national average.

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Income by Location

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Race/Ethnicity
Highest Median Household Income (Total)
  1. Census Tract 129.05
  2. Census Tract 107.03
  3. Census Tract 108.04

In 2020, the tract with the highest Median Household Income (Total) in Jefferson County, AL was Census Tract 129.05 with a value of $186,818, followed by Census Tract 107.03 and Census Tract 108.04, with respective values of $181,071 and $166,473.

The following map shows all of the tracts in Jefferson County, AL colored by their Median Household Income (Total).

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Poverty by Age and Sex

Females 25 - 34
Largest Demographic Living in Poverty

15.7% of the population for whom poverty status is determined in Jefferson County, AL (101k out of 644k people) live below the poverty line, a number that is higher than the national average of 12.8%. The largest demographic living in poverty are Females 25 - 34, followed by Females 18 - 24 and then Females 35 - 44.

The Census Bureau uses a set of money income thresholds that vary by family size and composition to determine who classifies as impoverished. If a family's total income is less than the family's threshold than that family and every individual in it is considered to be living in poverty.

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Poverty by Race and Ethnicity

Largest Race or Ethnicity Living in Poverty
  1. Black
    63,355 ± 2,101
  2. White
    29,880 ± 1,496
  3. Hispanic
    6,889 ± 677

The most common racial or ethnic group living below the poverty line in Jefferson County, AL is Black, followed by White and Hispanic.

The Census Bureau uses a set of money income thresholds that vary by family size and composition to determine who classifies as impoverished. If a family's total income is less than the family's threshold than that family and every individual in it is considered to be living in poverty.

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Occupations

Employment by Occupations

302k
2020 Value
± 4,903
−0.951%
1 Year decline
± 2.12%

From 2019 to 2020, employment in Jefferson County, AL declined at a rate of −0.951%, from 305k employees to 302k employees.

The most common job groups, by number of people living in Jefferson County, AL, are Office & Administrative Support Occupations (37,239 people), Sales & Related Occupations (32,339 people), and Management Occupations (29,210 people). This chart illustrates the share breakdown of the primary jobs held by residents of Jefferson County, AL.

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Most Common

The most common jobs held by residents of Jefferson County, AL, by number of employees, are Office & Administrative Support Occupations (37,239 people), Sales & Related Occupations (32,339 people), and Management Occupations (29,210 people).

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Most Specialized

Compared to other counties, Jefferson County, AL has an unusually high number of residents working as Health Diagnosing & Treating Practitioners & Other Technical Occupations (1.46 times higher than expected), Legal Occupations (1.42 times), and Health Technologists & Technicians (1.29 times).

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Highest Paid

The highest paid jobs held by residents of Jefferson County, AL, by median earnings, are Legal Occupations ($102,560), Architecture & Engineering Occupations ($78,888), and Computer & Mathematical Occupations ($72,207).

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Industries

Employment by Industries

302k
2020 Value
± 4,903
−0.951%
1 Year decline
± 2.12%

From 2019 to 2020, employment in Jefferson County, AL declined at a rate of −0.951%, from 305k employees to 302k employees.

The most common employment sectors for those who live in Jefferson County, AL, are Health Care & Social Assistance (50,659 people), Retail Trade (32,835 people), and Manufacturing (27,259 people). This chart shows the share breakdown of the primary industries for residents of Jefferson County, AL, though some of these residents may live in Jefferson County, AL and work somewhere else. Census data is tagged to a residential address, not a work address.

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Most Common

The most common industries in Jefferson County, AL, by number of employees, are Health Care & Social Assistance (50,659 people), Retail Trade (32,835 people), and Manufacturing (27,259 people).

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Most Specialized

Compared to other counties, Jefferson County, AL has an unusually high number of Utilities (1.96 times higher than expected), Finance & Insurance (1.5 times), and Management of Companies & Enterprises (1.23 times) industries.

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Highest Paying

The highest paying industries in Jefferson County, AL, by median earnings, are Utilities ($74,835), Mining, Quarrying, & Oil & Gas Extraction ($69,236), and Professional, Scientific, & Technical Services ($67,132).

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Domestic Trade

Domestic Production & Consumption

Domestic production and consumption consists of products and services shipped from Alabama to other states, or from other states to Alabama.
Top Domestic Production in Dollars
  1. $52.4B
  2. $22.9B
  3. $20.4B

In 2020, the top outbound Alabama product (by dollars) was Motorized vehicles with $52.4B, followed by Pharmaceuticals ($22.9B) and Base metals ($20.4B).

The following chart shows the share of these products in relation to all outbound Alabama products.

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Domestic Trade Growth

Showing data for Alabama.
$282B
2020 Value in Alabama
$539B
Projected 2050 Value in Alabama
91.3% growth

In 2020, total outbound Alabama trade was $282B. This is expected to increase 91.3% to $539B by 2050.

The following chart shows how the domestic outbound Alabama trade is projected to change in comparison to its neighboring states.

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Interstate Trade

Interstate trade consists of products and services shipped from Alabama to other states, or from other states to Alabama.
Most Common Trade Partners
  1. $31.7B
  2. $21.3B
  3. $14.3B

In 2020, the top outbound Alabama domestic partner for goods and services (by dollars) was Georgia with $31.7B, followed by Florida with $21.3B and Tennessee and $14.3B.

The following map shows the amount of trade that Alabama shares with each state (excluding itself).

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Civics

In the 2020 presidential election, the popular vote in Jefferson County, AL went to Joseph R Biden Jr. with 55.8% of the vote. The runner-up was Donald J. Trump (42.6%), followed by Other (1.63%). The most partisan county was Winston County, AL with 90.3% of the vote going to Donald J. Trump running for the Republican Party.

Richard Shelby and Tommy Tuberville are the senators currently representing the state of Alabama. In the United States, senators are elected to 6-year terms with the terms for individual senators staggered.

Alabama is currently represented by 7 members in the U.S. house, and members of the House of Representives are elected to 2-year terms.

Presidential Popular Vote by County

Presidential voting results are only available at the county level. Showing data for the counties inside of Alabama.
Joseph R Biden Jr.
Popular Vote for Jefferson County, AL
55.8% for the Democratic Party
Most Partisan Counties in Alabama
  1. 90.3% for Donald J. Trump (Republican Party)
  2. 89.7% for Donald J. Trump (Republican Party)
  3. 89.6% for Donald J. Trump (Republican Party)

In the 2020 presidential election, the most partisan county in Alabama was Winston County, AL with 90.3% of the vote going to Donald J. Trump running for the Republican Party.

The following map shows the counties in Alabama colored by their party leaning.

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US Senators from Alabama

Senatorial voting results are only available at the state level. Showing data for Alabama.
Richard Shelby
Senator from Alabama3
Assumed office on January 3, 1987
Until 1994, Richard Shelby won election to the Senate as a member of the Democratic Party.
Tommy Tuberville
Senator from Alabama2
Assumed office on January 3, 2021

Richard Shelby and Tommy Tuberville are the senators currently representing Alabama.

In the United States, senators are elected to 6-year terms with the terms for individual senators staggered.

The following chart shows elected senators in Alabama over time, excluding special elections, colored by their political party.

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US Representatives from Alabama

Alabama is currently represented by 7 members in the U.S. house.

Members of the House of Representives are elected to 2-year terms, and the following chart shows the how the members for Alabama have changed over time starting in 2008.

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Education

In 2020, universities in Jefferson County, AL awarded 11,014 degrees. The student population of Jefferson County, AL is skewed towards women, with 16,014 male students and 29,490 female students.

Most students graduating from Universities in Jefferson County, AL are White (6,561 and 61.8%), followed by Black or African American (2,805 and 26.4%), Asian (434 and 4.09%), and Hispanic or Latino (363 and 3.42%).

The largest universities in Jefferson County, AL by number of degrees awarded are University of Alabama at Birmingham (5,956 and 54.1%), Samford University (1,742 and 15.8%), and Jefferson State Community College (1,284 and 11.7%).

The most popular majors in Jefferson County, AL are Registered Nursing (1,471 and 13.4%), General Business Administration & Management (595 and 5.4%), and General Studies (445 and 4.04%).

The median tuition costs in Jefferson County, AL are $15,485 for private four year colleges, and $8,568 and $20,400 respectively, for public four year colleges for in-state students and out-of-state students.

Concentrations

Most Common
  1. 229 degree-majorss awarded
  2. 490 degree-majorss awarded
  3. 241 degree-majorss awarded

In 2020, the most common concentation for Bachelors Degree recipients in Jefferson County, AL was General Business Administration & Management with 229 degrees awarded.

This visualization illustrates the percentage of students graduating with a Bachelors Degree from schools in Jefferson County, AL according to their major.

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Universities

Largest Universities by degrees awarded
  1. 5,956 degrees awarded
  2. 1,742 degrees awarded
  3. 1,284 degrees awarded
$8,568
Median In-State Public
$15,485
Median Private

In 2020, the Jefferson County, AL institution with the largest number of graduating students was University of Alabama at Birmingham with 5,956 degrees awarded.

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Student Sex for Common Institutions

3,995
Degrees Awarded to Men
7,019
Degrees Awarded to Women

In 2020, 3,995 men were awarded degrees from institutions in Jefferson County, AL, which is 0.569 times less than the 7,019 female students who received degrees in the same year.

This chart displays the sex disparity between the institutions in Jefferson County, AL by degrees awarded.

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Student Race and Ethnicity

Most Common Student Race or Ethnicity
  1. White
    6,561 degrees awarded
  2. Black or African American
    2,805 degrees awarded
  3. Asian
    434 degrees awarded

In 2020 the most common race/ethnicity group awarded degrees at institutions in Jefferson County, AL was White students. These 6,561 degrees mean that there were 2.34 times more degrees awarded to White students then the next closest race/ethnicity group, Black or African American, with 2,805 degrees awarded.

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Housing & Living

The median property value in Jefferson County, AL was $165,000 in 2020, which is 0.718 times smaller than the national average of $229,800. Between 2019 and 2020 the median property value increased from $159,100 to $165,000, a 3.71% increase. The homeownership rate in Jefferson County, AL is 63.2%, which is lower than the national average of 64.4%. People in Jefferson County, AL have an average commute time of 24.3 minutes, and they drove alone to work. Car ownership in Jefferson County, AL is approximately the same as the national average, with an average of 2 cars per household.

Housing

Property Value

$165,000
2020 Median
± $2,569
$159,100
2019 Median
± $1,702

In 2020, the median property value in Jefferson County, AL grew to to $165,000 from the previous year's value of $159,100.

The following charts display, first, the property values in Jefferson County, AL compared to it's parent and neighbor geographies and, second, owner-occupied housing units distributed between a series of property value buckets compared to the national averages for each bucket. In Jefferson County, AL the largest share of households have a property value in the $200k - $250k range.

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Household Income

Please note that the buckets used in this visualization were not evenly distributed by ACS when publishing the data.
$55,088
Median Household Income
± $1,091
264k
Number of Households
± 4,569

In 2020, the median household income of the 264k households in Jefferson County, AL grew to $55,088 from the previous year's value of $53,901.

The following chart displays the households in Jefferson County, AL distributed between a series of income buckets compared to the national averages for each bucket. The largest share of households have an income in the $75k - $100k range.

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Property Taxes

< $800
Average Range

This chart shows the households in Jefferson County, AL distributed between a series of property tax buckets compared to the national averages for each bucket. In Jefferson County, AL the largest share of households pay taxes in the < $800 range.

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Rent vs Own

63.2%
2020 Homeownership
62.7%
2019 Homeownership

In 2020, 63.2% of the housing units in Jefferson County, AL were occupied by their owner. This percentage grew from the previous year's rate of 62.7%.

This percentage of owner-occupation is lower than the national average of 64.4%. This chart shows the ownership percentage in Jefferson County, AL compared it's parent and neighboring geographies.

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Commute Time

24.3 minutes
Average Travel Time

Using averages, employees in Jefferson County, AL have a shorter commute time (24.3 minutes) than the normal US worker (26.9 minutes). Additionally, 1.57% of the workforce in Jefferson County, AL have "super commutes" in excess of 90 minutes.

The chart below shows how the median household income in Jefferson County, AL compares to that of it's neighboring and parent geographies.

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Commuter Transportation

Most Common Commute in 2020
  1. Drove Alone (82.2%)
  2. Carpooled (9.21%)
  3. Worked At Home (5.22%)

In 2020, 82.2% of workers in Jefferson County, AL drove alone to work, followed by those who carpooled to work (9.21%) and those who worked at home (5.22%).

The following chart shows the number of households using each mode of transportation over time, using a logarithmic scale on the y-axis to help better show variations in the smaller means of commuting.

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Transportation

Car Ownership

2 cars
Average Number

The following chart displays the households in Jefferson County, AL distributed between a series of car ownership buckets compared to the national averages for each bucket. The largest share of households in Jefferson County, AL have 2 cars, followed by false.

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Health

91% of the population of Jefferson County, AL has health coverage, with 48.6% on employee plans, 16.5% on Medicaid, 11.7% on Medicare, 12.4% on non-group plans, and 1.7% on military or VA plans.

Per capita personal health care spending in Alabama was $7,281 in 2014. This is a 4.07% increase from the previous year ($6,996).

Primary care physicians in Jefferson County, AL see 920 patients per year on average, which represents a 1.08% decrease from the previous year (930 patients). Compare this to dentists who see 1085 patients per year, and mental health providers who see 524 patients per year.

Comparing across all counties in the state, Bullock County has the highest prevalence of diabetes (29.5%). Additionally, Macon County has the highest prevalence of adult obesity (50.9%)

Patient to Clinician Ratios

920 to 1
Patient to Primary Care Physician Ratio in Jefferson County, AL

Primary care physicians in Jefferson County, AL see an average of 920 patients per year. This represents a 1.08% decrease from the previous year (930 patients).

The following chart shows how the number of patients seen by primary care physicians has been changing over time in Jefferson County, AL in comparison to its neighboring geographies.

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Behavioral Health Conditions

Data only available at the state level.
State with the Highest Prevalence
  1. 8.26% of the population affected
  2. 8.13% of the population affected
  3. 7.98% of the population affected

In 2016, West Virginia had the highest prevalence of adults with major depressive episode, with 8.26% of the population affected. The second highest is Arkansas (8.13%), followed by New Hampshire (7.98%).

The following map shows the percent of individuals with major depressive episode by state over multiple years.

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Access and Quality

Data only available at state level.
Most prevalent states
  1. 19.2% of adults
  2. 17.9% of adults
  3. 17.6% of adults

In 2016, Mississippi had the highest prevalence of adults who haven't seen a doctor in the past 12 months due to cost, at 19.2%. It is followed by Texas (17.9%) and Louisiana (17.6%).

The following map shows the prevalence of adults who haven't seen a doctor in the past 12 months due to cost by state over multiple years.

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Health Care Spending

Data is only available at the state level. Showing data for Alabama.
$7,281
Total Per Capita Spending on Personal Health Care in Alabama
$3,641
Per Enrollee Private Health Insurance Spending on Personal Health Care
$5,042
Per Enrollee Medicaid Spending on Personal Health Care
$10,267
Per Enrollee Medicare Spending on Personal Health Care

Between 2013 and 2014, all personal health care spending per capita in Alabama (including private, Medicare, and Medicaid) grew 4.07%, from $6,996 to $7,281.

The following chart shows how this spending changed over time in comparison to Medicaid, Medicare, and private insurance spending, per enrollee.

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Health Care Coverage

9%
Uninsured
48.6%
Employer Coverage
16.5%
Medicaid
11.7%
Medicare
12.4%
Non-Group
1.7%
Military or VA

Between 2019 and 2020, the percent of uninsured citizens in Jefferson County, AL declined by 2.37% from 9.22% to 9%.

The following chart shows how the percent of uninsured individuals in Jefferson County, AL changed over time compared with the percent of individuals enrolled in various types of health insurance.

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Health Risks

Data available at the county level.
Most at risk counties
  1. 29.5% prevalence
  2. 25.6% prevalence
  3. 24.8% prevalence

Bullock County has the highest prevalence of diabetes in Alabama, at 29.5%.

The following map shows the prevalence of diabetes in Alabama by county over multiple years.

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