Alabama

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Population

4.89M

0.269% growth

Poverty Rate

18%


Median Age

39.3


Median Household Income

$49,861

3.61% growth

Number of Employees

2M

1.59% growth

Median Property Value

$147,900

4.67% growth

About

In 2018, Alabama had a population of 4.89M people with a median age of 39.3 and a median household income of $49,861. Between 2017 and 2018 the population of Alabama grew from 4.87M to 4.89M, a 0.269% increase and its median household income grew from $48,123 to $49,861, a 3.61% increase.

The population of Alabama is 65.3% White Alone, 26.6% Black or African American Alone, and 4.33% Hispanic or Latino. 5.3% of the people in Alabama speak a non-English language, and 98% are U.S. citizens.

The largest universities in Alabama are The University of Alabama (9,122 degrees awarded in 2017), Columbia Southern University (7,611 degrees), and Auburn University (6,484 degrees).

The median property value in Alabama is $147,900, and the homeownership rate is 68%. Most people in Alabama commute by Drove Alone, and the average commute time is 24.3 minutes. The average car ownership in Alabama is 2 cars per household.

Alabama borders Florida, Georgia, Tennessee, and Mississippi.

About the photo: Birmingham, AL

COVID-19

Total Confirmed Cases by Date

This chart shows the number of COVID-19 confirmed cases by date in Alabama compared with the four states with the most similar number of confirmed cases.

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Impact on Employment

This chart shows weekly unemployment insurance claims in Alabama (not-seasonally adjusted) compared with the four states with the most similar impact.

The most recent data point uses Advance State Claims data, which can be revised in subsequent weeks.

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Community Mobility

This chart presents movement trends over time in the state of Alabama across different categories of places such as retail and recreation, groceries and pharmacies, parks, transit stations, workplaces, and residential.

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Economy

The economy of Alabama employs 2M people. The largest industries in Alabama are Restaurants & Food Services (129,852 people), Construction (123,632 people), and Elementary & secondary schools (116,160 people), and the highest paying industries are Securities, commodities, funds, trusts & other financial investments ($127,135), Electronic & precision equipment repair and maintenance ($113,529), and Not specified wholesale trade ($110,837).

Median household income in Alabama is $49,861. Males in Alabama have an average income that is 1.42 times higher than the average income of females, which is $43,050. The income inequality in Alabama (measured using the Gini index) is 0.461, which is lower than than the national average.

Wages

Median Household Income

$49,861

2018 value

± $783

3.61%

1 Year Growth

± 2.16%

Households in Alabama have a median annual income of $49,861, which is less than the median annual income of $61,937 across the entire United States. This is in comparison to a median income of $48,123 in 2017, which represents a 3.61% annual growth.

The following chart shows how the median household income in Alabama compares to that of its neighboring and parent geographies.

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Wage by Gender in Common Jobs

$61,079

Average Male Salary

± $1,549

$43,050

Average Female Salary

± $1,220

In 2018, full-time male employees in Alabama made 1.42 times more than female employees.

This chart shows the gender-based wage disparity in the 5 most common occupations in Alabama by number of full-time employees.

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Wage by Race and Ethnicity in Common Jobs

Highest Average Salaries by Race & Ethnicity

  1. Asian

    $63,430 ± $11,914

  2. White

    $50,777 ± $1,176

  3. American Indian

    $43,719 ± $8,830

In 2018 the highest paid race/ethnicity of Alabama workers was Asian. These workers were paid 1.25 times more than White workers, who made the second highest salary of any race/ethnicity.

This chart shows the race- and ethnicity-based wage disparities in the 5 most common occupations in Alabama by number of full-time employees.

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Wage Distribution

0.461

2018 Wage GINI

0.459

2017 Wage GINI

In 2018, the income inequality in Alabama was 0.461 according to the GINI calculation of the wage distribution. Income inequality had a 0.461% growth from 2017 to 2018, which means that wage distribution grew somewhat less even.

The 2018 the GINI for Alabama was lower than than the national average of 0.479. In other words, wages are distributed more evenly in Alabama in comparison to the national average.

This chart shows the number of workers in Alabama across various wage buckets compared to the national average.

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Income by Location

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Highest Median Household Income (Total)

In 2018, the county with the highest Median Household Income (Total) in Alabama was Shelby County, AL with a value of $71,230, followed by Limestone County, AL and Madison County, AL, with respective values of $67,000 and $63,111.

The following map shows all of the counties in Alabama colored by their Median Household Income (Total).

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Poverty by Age and Gender

Females 25 - 34

Largest Demographic Living in Poverty

18% of the population for whom poverty status is determined in Alabama (850k out of 4.73M people) live below the poverty line, a number that is higher than the national average of 13.1%. The largest demographic living in poverty are Females 25 - 34, followed by Females 18 - 24 and then Females 35 - 44.

The Census Bureau uses a set of money income thresholds that vary by family size and composition to determine who classifies as impoverished. If a family's total income is less than the family's threshold than that family and every individual in it is considered to be living in poverty.

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Poverty by Race and Ethnicity

Largest Race or Ethnicity Living in Poverty

  1. White

    432,404 ± 4,676

  2. Black

    360,407 ± 4,243

  3. Hispanic

    62,607 ± 1,889

The most common racial or ethnic group living below the poverty line in Alabama is White, followed by Black and Hispanic.

The Census Bureau uses a set of money income thresholds that vary by family size and composition to determine who classifies as impoverished. If a family's total income is less than the family's threshold than that family and every individual in it is considered to be living in poverty.

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Occupations

Employment by Occupations

2M

2018 Value

1.59%

1 Year growth

± 1.59%

From 2017 to 2018, employment in Alabama grew at a rate of 1.59%, from 1.97M employees to 2M employees.

The most common job groups, by number of people living in Alabama, are Driver/sales workers & truck drivers (58,028 people), Registered nurses (53,802 people), and Elementary & middle school teachers (53,724 people). This chart illustrates the share breakdown of the primary jobs held by residents of Alabama.

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Most Common

The most common jobs held by residents of Alabama, by number of employees, are Driver/sales workers & truck drivers (58,028 people), Registered nurses (53,802 people), and Elementary & middle school teachers (53,724 people).

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Most Specialized

Compared to other states, Alabama has an unusually high number of residents working as Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, & kettle operators & tenders (6.33 times higher than expected), Miscellaneous textile, apparel, & furnishings workers except upholsterers (6.01 times), and Tire builders (5.02 times).

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Highest Paid

The highest paid jobs held by residents of Alabama, by average salary, are Surgeons ($263,197), Physicians ($227,752), and Personal financial advisors ($177,689).

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Industries

Employment by Industries

2M

2018 Value

1.59%

1 Year growth

± 1.59%

From 2017 to 2018, employment in Alabama grew at a rate of 1.59%, from 1.97M employees to 2M employees.

The most common employment sectors for those who live in Alabama, are Restaurants & Food Services (129,852 people), Construction (123,632 people), and Elementary & secondary schools (116,160 people). This chart shows the share breakdown of the primary industries for residents of Alabama, though some of these residents may live in Alabama and work somewhere else. Census data is tagged to a residential address, not a work address.

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Most Common

The most common industries in Alabama, by number of employees, are Restaurants & Food Services (129,852 people), Construction (123,632 people), and Elementary & secondary schools (116,160 people).

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Most Specialized

Compared to other states, Alabama has an unusually high number of Carpet & rug mills (6.5 times higher than expected), Prefabricated wood buildings & mobile homes (5.93 times), and Tire manufacturing (4.97 times) industries.

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Domestic Trade

Domestic Production & Consumption

Domestic production and consumption consists of products and services shipped from Alabama to other states, or from other states to Alabama.

Top Domestic Production in Dollars

  1. $43.7B

  2. $29.7B

  3. $23.9B

In 2015, the top outbound Alabama product (by dollars) was Motorized vehicles with $43.7B, followed by Mixed freight ($29.7B) and Coal-n.e.c. ($23.9B).

The following chart shows the share of these products in relation to all outbound Alabama products.

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Domestic Trade Growth

$265B

2020 Value

$367B

Projected 2045 Value

38.3% growth

In 2020, total outbound Alabama trade was $265B. This is expected to increase 38.3% to $367B by 2045.

The following chart shows how the domestic outbound Alabama trade is projected to change in comparison to its neighboring states.

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Interstate Trade

Interstate trade consists of products and services shipped from Alabama to other states, or from other states to Alabama.

Most Common Trade Partners

  1. $27.4B

  2. $17.9B

  3. $16.2B

In 2015, the top outbound Alabama domestic partner for goods and services (by dollars) was Georgia with $27.4B, followed by Florida with $17.9B and Tennessee and $16.2B.

The following map shows the amount of trade that Alabama shares with each state (excluding itself).

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Health

90.6% of the population of Alabama has health coverage, with 44.7% on employee plans, 17.1% on Medicaid, 12.6% on Medicare, 13.8% on non-group plans, and 2.4% on military or VA plans.

Per capita personal health care spending in the state of Alabama was $7,281 in 2014. This is a 4.07% increase from the previous year ($6,996).

Primary care physicians in Alabama see 1535 patients per year on average, which represents a 1.1% decrease from the previous year (1552 patients). Compare this to dentists who see 2139 patients per year, and mental health providers who see 1185 patients per year.

Comparing across all counties in the state, Greene County has the highest prevalence of diabetes (21.1%). Additionally, Macon County has the highest prevalence of adult obesity (47.8%)

Patient to Clinician Ratios

1,535 to 1

Patient to Primary Care Physician Ratio

Primary care physicians in Alabama see an average of 1,535 patients per year. This represents a 1.1% decrease from the previous year (1,552 patients).

The following chart shows how the number of patients seen by primary care physicians has been changing over time in Alabama in comparison to its neighboring geographies.

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Behavioral Health Conditions

Data only available at the state level.

State with the Highest Prevalence

  1. 8.26% of the population affected

  2. 8.13% of the population affected

  3. 7.98% of the population affected

In 2016, West Virginia had the highest prevalence of adults with major depressive episode, with 8.26% of the population affected. The second highest is Arkansas (8.13%), followed by New Hampshire (7.98%).

The following map shows the percent of individuals with major depressive episode by state over multiple years.

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Access and Quality

Data only available at state level.

Most prevalent states

  1. 19.2% of adults

  2. 17.9% of adults

  3. 17.6% of adults

In 2016, Mississippi had the highest prevalence of adults who haven't seen a doctor in the past 12 months due to cost, at 19.2%. It is followed by Texas (17.9%) and Louisiana (17.6%).

The following map shows the prevalence of adults who haven't seen a doctor in the past 12 months due to cost by state over multiple years.

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Health Care Spending

$7,281

Total Per Capita Spending on Personal Health Care 

$3,641

Per Enrollee Private Health Insurance Spending on Personal Health Care

$5,042

Per Enrollee Medicaid Spending on Personal Health Care

$10,267

Per Enrollee Medicare Spending on Personal Health Care

Between 2013 and 2014, all personal health care spending per capita in Alabama (including private, Medicare, and Medicaid) grew 4.07%, from $6,996 to $7,281.

The following chart shows how this spending changed over time in comparison to Medicaid, Medicare, and private insurance spending, per enrollee.

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Health Care Coverage

9.37%

Uninsured

44.7%

Employer Coverage

17.1%

Medicaid

12.6%

Medicare

13.8%

Non-Group

2.4%

Military or VA

Between 2016 and 2017, the percent of uninsured citizens in Alabama grew by 2.97% from 9.1% to 9.37%.

The following chart shows how the percent of uninsured individuals in Alabama changed over time compared with the percent of individuals enrolled in various types of health insurance.

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Health Risks

Data available at the county level.

Most at risk counties

  1. 21.1% prevalence

  2. 20.9% prevalence

  3. 20.4% prevalence

Greene County has the highest prevalence of diabetes in Alabama, at 21.1%.

The following map shows the prevalence of diabetes in Alabama by county over multiple years.

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Diversity

Alabama is home to a population of 4.89M people, from which 98% are citizens. As of 2017, 3.44% of Alabama residents were born outside of the country (168k people).

The ethnic composition of the population of Alabama is composed of 3.19M White Alone residents (65.3%), 1.3M Black or African American Alone residents (26.6%), 211k Hispanic or Latino residents (4.33%), 91.5k Two or More Races residents (1.87%), 64.9k Asian Alone residents (1.33%), 20.5k American Indian & Alaska Native Alone residents (0.418%), 6.97k Some Other Race Alone residents (0.143%), and 1.8k Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander Alone residents (0.0368%).

The most common foreign languages spoken in Alabama are Spanish (150,932 speakers), Chinese (Incl. Mandarin, Cantonese) (8,745 speakers), and Korean (8,672 speakers).

Age

Age by Nativity

39

Median Native-Born Age

± 0.2

40

Median Foreign-Born Age

± 0.9

In 2018, the median age of all people in Alabama was 39.3. Native-born citizens, with a median age of 39, were generally younger than than foreign-born citizens, with a median age of 40. But people in Alabama are getting getting older. In 2017, the average age of all Alabama residents was 39.

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Heritage

Foreign-Born Population

3.44%

2017 Foreign-Born Population

168k people

3.4%

2016 Foreign-Born Population

166k people

As of 2017, 3.44% of Alabama residents (168k people) were born outside of the United States, which is lower than the national average of 13.7%. In 2016, the percentage of foreign-born citizens in Alabama was 3.4%, meaning that the rate has been increasing.

The following chart shows the percentage of foreign-born residents in Alabama compared to that of it's neighboring and parent geographies.

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Global Diversity

Most Common Origin

  1. Mexico

    44,820 ± 5,174 people

  2. China

    9,130 ± 2,344 people

  3. India

    9,004 ± 2,328 people

In 2018, the most common birthplace for the foreign-born residents of Alabama was Mexico, the natal country of 44,820 Alabama residents, followed by China with 9,130 and India with 9,004.

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Citizenship

98%

2018 Citizenship

97.9%

2017 Citizenship

As of 2018, 98% of Alabama residents were US citizens, which is higher than the national average of 93.2%. In 2017, the percentage of US citizens in Alabama was 97.9%, meaning that the rate of citizenship has been increasing.

The following chart shows US citizenship percentages in Alabama compared to that of it's neighboring and parent geographies.

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Race and Ethnicity

Most Common

  1. White Alone

    3.19M ± 2.08k

  2. Black or African American Alone

    1.3M ± 6.79k

  3. Hispanic or Latino

    211k ± 10.1k

In 2018, there were 2.46 times more White Alone residents (3.19M people) in Alabama than any other race or ethnicity. There were 1.3M Black or African American Alone and 211k Hispanic or Latino residents, the second and third most common racial or ethnic groups.

The following bar chart shows the 8 races and ethnicities represented in Alabama as a share of the total population.

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Non-English Speakers

Most Common Languages

  1. Spanish

    150,932 speakers (3.28%)

  2. Chinese (Incl. Mandarin, Cantonese)

    8,745 speakers (0.19%)

  3. Korean

    8,672 speakers (0.189%)

5.3% of Alabama citizens are speakers of a non-English language, which is lower than the national average of 21.9%. In 2018, the most common non-English language spoken in Alabama was Spanish. 3.28% of the overall population of Alabama are native Spanish speakers. 0.19% speak Chinese (Incl. Mandarin, Cantonese) and 0.189% speak Spanish, the next two most common languages.

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Military

Veterans

Most Common Service Period

  1. Vietnam

    105,590 ± 3,805

  2. Gulf War (2001-)

    76,638 ± 5,530

  3. Gulf War (1990s)

    51,322 ± 4,130

Alabama has a large population of military personnel who served in Vietnam, 1.38 times greater than any other conflict.

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Education

In 2017, universities in Alabama awarded 72,991 degrees. The student population of Alabama is skewed towards women, with 131,791 male students and 176,816 female students.

Most students graduating from Universities in Alabama are White (45,609 and 64.4%), followed by Black or African American (17,189 and 24.3%), Unknown (2,427 and 3.43%), and Hispanic or Latino (2,327 and 3.29%).

The largest universities in Alabama by number of degrees awarded are The University of Alabama (9,122 and 12.5%), Columbia Southern University (7,611 and 10.4%), and Auburn University (6,484 and 8.88%).

The most popular majors in Alabama are General Business Administration & Management (6,226 and 8.53%), Registered Nursing (5,805 and 7.95%), and General Studies (4,340 and 5.95%).

The median tuition costs in Alabama are $14,827 for private four year colleges, and $8,328 and $16,707 respectively, for public four year colleges for in-state students and out-of-state students.

Concentrations

Most Common

  1. 3,200 degrees awarded

  2. 2,222 degrees awarded

  3. 1,342 degrees awarded

In 2015, the most common concentation for Bachelors Degree recipients in Alabama was General Business Administration & Management with 3,200 degrees awarded.

This visualization illustrates the percentage of students graduating with a Bachelors Degree from schools in Alabama according to their major.

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Universities

Largest Universities by degrees awarded

  1. 9,122 degrees awarded

  2. 7,611 degrees awarded

  3. 6,484 degrees awarded

$8,328

Median In-State Public

$14,827

Median Private

In 2017, the Alabama institution with the largest number of graduating students was The University of Alabama with 9,122 degrees awarded.

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Student Gender for Common Institutions

31,690

Degrees Awarded to Men

41,301

Degrees Awarded to Women

In 2017, 31,690 men were awarded degrees from institutions in Alabama, which is 0.767 times less than the 41,301 female students who received degrees in the same year.

This chart displays the gender disparity between the top 5 institutions in Alabama by degrees awarded.

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Student Race and Ethnicity

Most Common Student Race or Ethnicity

  1. White

    45,609 degrees awarded

  2. Black or African American

    17,189 degrees awarded

  3. Unknown

    2,427 degrees awarded

In 2017 the majority of degrees awarded at institutions in Alabama were to White students. These 45,609 degrees mean that there were 2.65 times more White students then the next closest race/ethnicity group, Black or African American, with 17,189 degrees awarded.

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Housing & Living

The median property value in Alabama was $147,900 in 2018, which is 0.644 times smaller than the national average of $229,700. Between 2017 and 2018 the median property value increased from $141,300 to $147,900, a 4.67% increase. The homeownership rate in Alabama is 68%, which is higher than the national average of 63.9%. People in Alabama have an average commute time of 24.3 minutes, and they commute by Drove Alone. Car ownership in Alabama is approximately the same as the national average, with an average of 2 cars per household.

Housing

Property Value

$147,900

2018 Median

± $2,304

$141,300

2017 Median

± $1,758

In 2018, the median property value in Alabama grew to to $147,900 from the previous year's value of $141,300.

The following charts display, first, the property values in Alabama compared to it's parent and neighbor geographies and, second, owner-occupied housing units distributed between a series of property value buckets compared to the national averages for each bucket. In Alabama the largest share of households have a property value in the $200k - $250k range.

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Household Income

Please note that the buckets used in this visualization were not evenly distributed by ACS when publishing the data.

$49,861

Median Household Income

± $783

1.86M

Number of Households

± 21,443

In 2018, the median household income of the 1.86M households in Alabama grew to $49,861 from the previous year's value of $48,123.

The following chart displays the households in Alabama distributed between a series of income buckets compared to the national averages for each bucket. The largest share of households have an income in the $75k - $100k range.

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Property Taxes

< $800

Average Range

This chart shows the households in Alabama distributed between a series of property tax buckets compared to the national averages for each bucket. In Alabama the largest share of households pay taxes in the < $800 range.

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Rent vs Own

68%

2018 Homeownership

68%

2017 Homeownership

In 2018, 68% of the housing units in Alabama were occupied by their owner. This percentage declined from the previous year's rate of 68%.

This percentage of owner-occupation is higher than the national average of 63.9%. This chart shows the ownership percentage in Alabama compared it's parent and neighboring geographies.

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Commute Time

24.3 minutes

Average Travel Time

Using averages, employees in Alabama have a shorter commute time (24.3 minutes) than the normal US worker (25.7 minutes). Additionally, 2.03% of the workforce in Alabama have "super commutes" in excess of 90 minutes.

The chart below shows how the median household income in Alabama compares to that of it's neighboring and parent geographies.

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Commuter Transportation

Most Common Method of Travel

  1. Drove Alone

    86.3%

  2. Carpooled

    7.87%

  3. Worked At Home

    3.45%

In 2018, the most common method of travel for workers in Alabama was Drove Alone (86.3%), followed by those who Carpooled (7.87%) and those who Worked At Home (3.45%).

The following chart shows the number of households using each mode of transportation over time, using a logarithmic scale on the y-axis to help better show variations in the smaller means of commuting.

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Transportation

Car Ownership

2 cars

Average Number

The following chart displays the households in Alabama distributed between a series of car ownership buckets compared to the national averages for each bucket. The largest share of households in Alabama have 2 cars, followed by 3 cars.

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