Essex County, MA

County

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2020 Population
787,038
0.429% 1-year growth
US Senator
Elizabeth Warren
Democratic Party
US Senator
Ed Markey
Democratic Party
2020 Median Age
40.9
0% 1-year change
2020 Poverty Rate
10.1%
2.12% 1-year decrease
2020 Median Household Income
$82,225
3.74% 1-year growth
2020 Median Property Value
$436,600
6.51% 1-year growth
2020 Employed Population
409,549
0.203% 1-year growth

About

In 2020, Essex County, MA had a population of 787k people with a median age of 40.9 and a median household income of $82,225. Between 2019 and 2020 the population of Essex County, MA grew from 783,676 to 787,038, a 0.429% increase and its median household income grew from $79,263 to $82,225, a 3.74% increase.

The 5 largest ethnic groups in Essex County, MA are White (Non-Hispanic) (69.5%), Other (Hispanic) (8.81%), White (Hispanic) (8.76%), Asian (Non-Hispanic) (3.42%), and Black or African American (Non-Hispanic) (3.22%).

None of the households in Essex County, MA reported speaking a non-English language at home as their primary shared language. This does not consider the potential multi-lingual nature of households, but only the primary self-reported language spoken by all members of the household.

92.4% of the residents in Essex County, MA are U.S. citizens.

The largest universities in Essex County, MA are Salem State University (2,242 degrees awarded in 2020), Merrimack College (1,610 degrees), and Endicott College (1,361 degrees).

In 2020, the median property value in Essex County, MA was $436,600, and the homeownership rate was 63.8%. Most people in Essex County, MA drove alone to work, and the average commute time was 30.2 minutes. The average car ownership in Essex County, MA was 2 cars per household.

About the photo: Whale watching in Gloucester

Diversity

Essex County, MA is home to a population of 787k people, from which 92.4% are citizens. As of 2020, 17.6% of Essex County, MA residents were born outside of the country (138k people).

In 2020, there were 7.89 times more White (Non-Hispanic) residents (547k people) in Essex County, MA than any other race or ethnicity. There were 69.3k Other (Hispanic) and 68.9k White (Hispanic) residents, the second and third most common ethnic groups.

Race and Ethnicity

Race and Ethnicity

The 3 largest ethnic groups in Essex County, MA
  1. White (Non-Hispanic)
    547k ± 678
  2. Other (Hispanic)
    69.3k ± 3.45k
  3. White (Hispanic)
    68.9k ± 2.9k
21.4%
Hispanic Population
169k people

In 2020, there were 7.89 times more White (Non-Hispanic) residents (547k people) in Essex County, MA than any other race or ethnicity. There were 69.3k Other (Hispanic) and 68.9k White (Hispanic) residents, the second and third most common ethnic groups.

21.4% of the people in Essex County, MA are hispanic (169k people).

The following chart shows the 7 races represented in Essex County, MA as a share of the total population.

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Heritage

Foreign-Born Population

17.6%
2020 Foreign-Born Population
138k people
17.4%
2019 Foreign-Born Population
136k people

As of 2020, 17.6% of Essex County, MA residents (138k people) were born outside of the United States, which is higher than the national average of 13.5%. In 2019, the percentage of foreign-born citizens in Essex County, MA was 17.4%, meaning that the rate has been increasing.

The following chart shows the percentage of foreign-born residents in Essex County, MA compared to that of it's neighboring and parent geographies.

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Age by Nativity

40
Median Native-Born Age
± 0.3
44
Median Foreign-Born Age
± 0.6

In 2020, the median age of all people in Essex County, MA was 40.9. Native-born citizens, with a median age of 40, were generally younger than foreign-born citizens, with a median age of 44. But people in Essex County, MA are getting staying the same age. In 2019, the average age of all Essex County, MA residents was 41.

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Global Diversity

The PUMS dataset is not available at the County level, so we are showing data for Massachusetts.
Most Common Origin
  1. China
    98,663 ± 7,656 people
  2. Dominican Republic
    90,760 ± 7,347 people
  3. Brazil
    81,000 ± 6,946 people

In 2020, the most common birthplace for the foreign-born residents of Massachusetts was China, the natal country of 98,663 Massachusetts residents, followed by Dominican Republic with 90,760 and Brazil with 81,000.

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Citizenship

92.4%
2020 Citizenship
92.1%
2019 Citizenship

As of 2020, 92.4% of Essex County, MA residents were US citizens, which is lower than the national average of 93.4%. In 2019, the percentage of US citizens in Essex County, MA was 92.1%, meaning that the rate of citizenship has been increasing.

The following chart shows US citizenship percentages in Essex County, MA compared to that of it's neighboring and parent geographies.

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Military

Veterans

Most Common Service Period
  1. Vietnam
    10,640 ± 767
  2. Gulf War (2001-)
    4,328 ± 622
  3. Korea
    4,001 ± 427

Essex County, MA has a large population of military personnel who served in Vietnam, 2.46 times greater than any other conflict.

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COVID-19

Daily New Cases by Date

Showing data at the state level for Massachusetts. Hospitalization data for some states may be delayed or not reported.
Y-Axis

This chart shows the number of COVID-19 daily new cases by date in Massachusetts, as a 7-day rolling average, compared with the four states with the most similar number of confirmed cases.

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Unemployment Insurance Claims

Data is only available at the state level. Showing data for Massachusetts.

This chart shows weekly unemployment insurance claims in Massachusetts (not-seasonally adjusted) compared with the four states with the most similar impact.

The most recent data point uses Advance State Claims data, which can be revised in subsequent weeks.

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Employment by Industry Sector

Data is only available at the state level. Showing data for Massachusetts.
Y-Axis
8.45%
Year-over-year growth
Employment change between May 2020 and May 2021

As of May 2021, there are 145M people employed in Massachusetts. This represents a 8.45% increase in employment when compared to May 2020.

The following chart shows monthly employment numbers for each industry sector in Massachusetts.

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Community Mobility

Data is only available at the state level. Showing data for Massachusetts.

This chart presents movement trends over time in the state of Massachusetts across different categories of places such as retail and recreation, groceries and pharmacies, parks, transit stations, workplaces, and residential.

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Economy

Median household income in Essex County, MA is $82,225. In 2020, the tract with the highest Median Household Income in Essex County, MA was Census Tract 2532.05 with a value of $222,115, followed by Census Tract 2543.01 and Census Tract 2532.03, with respective values of $215,833 and $181,750.

Males in Massachusetts have an average income that is 1.32 times higher than the average income of females, which is $69,870. The income inequality in Massachusetts (measured using the Gini index) is 0.48, which is higher than than the national average.

The economy of Essex County, MA employs 410k people. The largest industries in Essex County, MA are Health Care & Social Assistance (65,708 people), Retail Trade (45,101 people), and Manufacturing (43,587 people), and the highest paying industries are Mining, Quarrying, & Oil & Gas Extraction ($103,068), Professional, Scientific, & Technical Services ($82,485), and Utilities ($81,475).

Wages

Median Household Income

$82,225
2020 value
± $1,120
3.74%
1 Year Growth
± 1.88%

Households in Essex County, MA have a median annual income of $82,225, which is more than the median annual income of $64,994 across the entire United States. This is in comparison to a median income of $79,263 in 2019, which represents a 3.74% annual growth.

The following chart shows how the median household income in Essex County, MA compares to that of its neighboring and parent geographies.

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Wage by Sex in Common Jobs

The PUMS dataset is not available at the County level, so we are showing data for Massachusetts.
$92,436
Average Male Salary in Massachusetts
± $1,932
$69,870
Average Female Salary in Massachusetts
± $1,420

In 2020, full-time male employees in Massachusetts made 1.32 times more than female employees.

This chart shows the sex-based wage disparity in the 5 most common occupations in Massachusetts by number of full-time employees.

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Wage by Race and Ethnicity in Common Jobs

The PUMS dataset is not available at the County level, so we are showing data for Massachusetts.
Highest Average Salaries by Race & Ethnicity in Massachusetts
  1. Asian
    $80,954 ± $4,414
  2. White
    $72,040 ± $1,231
  3. Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
    $57,223 ± $36,115

In 2020 the highest paid race/ethnicity of Massachusetts workers was Asian. These workers were paid 1.12 times more than White workers, who made the second highest salary of any race/ethnicity in Massachusetts.

This chart shows the race- and ethnicity-based wage disparities in the 5 most common occupations in Massachusetts by number of full-time employees.

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Wage Distribution

The closest comparable wage GINI for Essex County, MA is from Massachusetts.
0.48
2020 Wage GINI in Massachusetts
0.483
2019 Wage GINI in Massachusetts

In 2020, the income inequality in Massachusetts was 0.48 according to the GINI calculation of the wage distribution. Income inequality had a 0.544% decline from 2019 to 2020, which means that wage distribution grew somewhat more even. The GINI for Massachusetts was higher than than the national average of 0.478. In other words, wages are distributed less evenly in Massachusetts in comparison to the national average.

This chart shows the number of workers in Massachusetts across various wage buckets compared to the national average.

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Income by Location

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Race/Ethnicity
Highest Median Household Income (Total)
  1. Census Tract 2532.05
  2. Census Tract 2543.01
  3. Census Tract 2532.03

In 2020, the tract with the highest Median Household Income (Total) in Essex County, MA was Census Tract 2532.05 with a value of $222,115, followed by Census Tract 2543.01 and Census Tract 2532.03, with respective values of $215,833 and $181,750.

The following map shows all of the tracts in Essex County, MA colored by their Median Household Income (Total).

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Poverty by Age and Sex

Females 25 - 34
Largest Demographic Living in Poverty

10.1% of the population for whom poverty status is determined in Essex County, MA (78.1k out of 770k people) live below the poverty line, a number that is lower than the national average of 12.8%. The largest demographic living in poverty are Females 25 - 34, followed by Females 55 - 64 and then Females 35 - 44.

The Census Bureau uses a set of money income thresholds that vary by family size and composition to determine who classifies as impoverished. If a family's total income is less than the family's threshold than that family and every individual in it is considered to be living in poverty.

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Poverty by Race and Ethnicity

Largest Race or Ethnicity Living in Poverty
  1. White
    48,833 ± 1,847
  2. Hispanic
    33,854 ± 1,570
  3. Other
    15,415 ± 1,136

The most common racial or ethnic group living below the poverty line in Essex County, MA is White, followed by Hispanic and Other.

The Census Bureau uses a set of money income thresholds that vary by family size and composition to determine who classifies as impoverished. If a family's total income is less than the family's threshold than that family and every individual in it is considered to be living in poverty.

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Occupations

Employment by Occupations

410k
2020 Value
± 5,129
0.203%
1 Year growth
± 1.7%

From 2019 to 2020, employment in Essex County, MA grew at a rate of 0.203%, from 409k employees to 410k employees.

The most common job groups, by number of people living in Essex County, MA, are Management Occupations (50,116 people), Office & Administrative Support Occupations (43,298 people), and Sales & Related Occupations (41,038 people). This chart illustrates the share breakdown of the primary jobs held by residents of Essex County, MA.

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Most Common

The most common jobs held by residents of Essex County, MA, by number of employees, are Management Occupations (50,116 people), Office & Administrative Support Occupations (43,298 people), and Sales & Related Occupations (41,038 people).

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Most Specialized

Compared to other counties, Essex County, MA has an unusually high number of residents working as Healthcare Support Occupations (1.2 times higher than expected), Architecture & Engineering Occupations (1.18 times), and Community & Social Service Occupations (1.17 times).

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Highest Paid

The highest paid jobs held by residents of Essex County, MA, by median earnings, are Law Enforcement Workers Including Supervisors ($95,672), Architecture & Engineering Occupations ($94,490), and Computer & Mathematical Occupations ($93,381).

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Industries

Employment by Industries

410k
2020 Value
± 5,129
0.203%
1 Year growth
± 1.7%

From 2019 to 2020, employment in Essex County, MA grew at a rate of 0.203%, from 409k employees to 410k employees.

The most common employment sectors for those who live in Essex County, MA, are Health Care & Social Assistance (65,708 people), Retail Trade (45,101 people), and Manufacturing (43,587 people). This chart shows the share breakdown of the primary industries for residents of Essex County, MA, though some of these residents may live in Essex County, MA and work somewhere else. Census data is tagged to a residential address, not a work address.

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Most Common

The most common industries in Essex County, MA, by number of employees, are Health Care & Social Assistance (65,708 people), Retail Trade (45,101 people), and Manufacturing (43,587 people).

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Most Specialized

Compared to other counties, Essex County, MA has an unusually high number of Professional, Scientific, & Technical Services (1.25 times higher than expected), Health Care & Social Assistance (1.15 times), and Management of Companies & Enterprises (1.1 times) industries.

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Highest Paying

The highest paying industries in Essex County, MA, by median earnings, are Mining, Quarrying, & Oil & Gas Extraction ($103,068), Professional, Scientific, & Technical Services ($82,485), and Utilities ($81,475).

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Domestic Trade

Domestic Production & Consumption

Domestic production and consumption consists of products and services shipped from Massachusetts to other states, or from other states to Massachusetts.
Top Domestic Production in Dollars
  1. $37.4B
  2. $29.6B
  3. $28.4B

In 2020, the top outbound Massachusetts product (by dollars) was Pharmaceuticals with $37.4B, followed by Electronics ($29.6B) and Mixed freight ($28.4B).

The following chart shows the share of these products in relation to all outbound Massachusetts products.

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Domestic Trade Growth

Showing data for Massachusetts.
$314B
2020 Value in Massachusetts
$627B
Projected 2050 Value in Massachusetts
99.9% growth

In 2020, total outbound Massachusetts trade was $314B. This is expected to increase 99.9% to $627B by 2050.

The following chart shows how the domestic outbound Massachusetts trade is projected to change in comparison to its neighboring states.

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Interstate Trade

Interstate trade consists of products and services shipped from Massachusetts to other states, or from other states to Massachusetts.
Most Common Trade Partners
  1. $31B
  2. $23.4B
  3. $14.9B

In 2020, the top outbound Massachusetts domestic partner for goods and services (by dollars) was New York with $31B, followed by New Hampshire with $23.4B and Connecticut and $14.9B.

The following map shows the amount of trade that Massachusetts shares with each state (excluding itself).

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Civics

In the 2020 presidential election, the popular vote in Essex County, MA went to Joseph R Biden Jr. with 62.9% of the vote. The runner-up was Donald J. Trump (34.1%), followed by Other (1.7%). The most partisan county was Suffolk County, MA with 80.2% of the vote going to Joseph R Biden Jr. running for the Democratic Party.

Elizabeth Warren and Ed Markey are the senators currently representing the state of Massachusetts. In the United States, senators are elected to 6-year terms with the terms for individual senators staggered.

Massachusetts is currently represented by 9 members in the U.S. house, and members of the House of Representives are elected to 2-year terms.

Presidential Popular Vote by County

Presidential voting results are only available at the county level. Showing data for the counties inside of Massachusetts.
Joseph R Biden Jr.
Popular Vote for Essex County, MA
62.9% for the Democratic Party
Most Partisan Counties in Massachusetts
  1. 80.2% for Joseph R Biden Jr. (Democratic Party)
  2. 77% for Joseph R Biden Jr. (Democratic Party)
  3. 72% for Joseph R Biden Jr. (Democratic Party)

In the 2020 presidential election, the most partisan county in Massachusetts was Suffolk County, MA with 80.2% of the vote going to Joseph R Biden Jr. running for the Democratic Party.

The following map shows the counties in Massachusetts colored by their party leaning.

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US Senators from Massachusetts

Senatorial voting results are only available at the state level. Showing data for Massachusetts.
Elizabeth Warren
Senator from Massachusetts1
Assumed office on January 3, 2013
Ed Markey
Senator from Massachusetts2
Assumed office on July 16, 2013
Elected to the seat to succeed Mo Cowan, who had been appointed to the seat following the resignation of John Kerry, who had become Secretary of State.

Elizabeth Warren and Ed Markey are the senators currently representing Massachusetts.

In the United States, senators are elected to 6-year terms with the terms for individual senators staggered.

The following chart shows elected senators in Massachusetts over time, excluding special elections, colored by their political party.

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US Representatives from Massachusetts

Massachusetts is currently represented by 9 members in the U.S. house.

Members of the House of Representives are elected to 2-year terms, and the following chart shows the how the members for Massachusetts have changed over time starting in 2008.

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Education

In 2020, universities in Essex County, MA awarded 8,432 degrees. The student population of Essex County, MA is skewed towards women, with 11,430 male students and 19,537 female students.

Most students graduating from Universities in Essex County, MA are White (5,655 and 69.2%), followed by Hispanic or Latino (1,185 and 14.5%), Black or African American (512 and 6.27%), and Unknown (366 and 4.48%).

The largest universities in Essex County, MA by number of degrees awarded are Salem State University (2,242 and 26.6%), Merrimack College (1,610 and 19.1%), and Endicott College (1,361 and 16.1%).

The most popular majors in Essex County, MA are General Business Administration & Management (518 and 6.14%), Truck, Bus, & Commercial Vehicle Operator & Instructor (432 and 5.12%), and Registered Nursing (335 and 3.97%).

The median tuition costs in Essex County, MA are $34,470 for private four year colleges, and $910 and $7,050 respectively, for public four year colleges for in-state students and out-of-state students.

Concentrations

Most Common
  1. 260 degree-majorss awarded
  2. 229 degree-majorss awarded
  3. 281 degree-majorss awarded

In 2020, the most common concentation for Bachelors Degree recipients in Essex County, MA was Registered Nursing with 260 degrees awarded.

This visualization illustrates the percentage of students graduating with a Bachelors Degree from schools in Essex County, MA according to their major.

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Universities

Largest Universities by degrees awarded
  1. 2,242 degrees awarded
  2. 1,610 degrees awarded
  3. 1,361 degrees awarded
$910
Median In-State Public
$34,470
Median Private

In 2020, the Essex County, MA institution with the largest number of graduating students was Salem State University with 2,242 degrees awarded.

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Student Sex for Common Institutions

3,328
Degrees Awarded to Men
5,104
Degrees Awarded to Women

In 2020, 3,328 men were awarded degrees from institutions in Essex County, MA, which is 0.652 times less than the 5,104 female students who received degrees in the same year.

This chart displays the sex disparity between the institutions in Essex County, MA by degrees awarded.

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Student Race and Ethnicity

Most Common Student Race or Ethnicity
  1. White
    5,655 degrees awarded
  2. Hispanic or Latino
    1,185 degrees awarded
  3. Black or African American
    512 degrees awarded

In 2020 the most common race/ethnicity group awarded degrees at institutions in Essex County, MA was White students. These 5,655 degrees mean that there were 4.77 times more degrees awarded to White students then the next closest race/ethnicity group, Hispanic or Latino, with 1,185 degrees awarded.

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Housing & Living

The median property value in Essex County, MA was $436,600 in 2020, which is 1.9 times larger than the national average of $229,800. Between 2019 and 2020 the median property value increased from $409,900 to $436,600, a 6.51% increase. The homeownership rate in Essex County, MA is 63.8%, which is lower than the national average of 64.4%. People in Essex County, MA have an average commute time of 30.2 minutes, and they drove alone to work. Car ownership in Essex County, MA is approximately the same as the national average, with an average of 2 cars per household.

Housing

Property Value

$436,600
2020 Median
± $3,401
$409,900
2019 Median
± $3,590

In 2020, the median property value in Essex County, MA grew to to $436,600 from the previous year's value of $409,900.

The following charts display, first, the property values in Essex County, MA compared to it's parent and neighbor geographies and, second, owner-occupied housing units distributed between a series of property value buckets compared to the national averages for each bucket. In Essex County, MA the largest share of households have a property value in the $500k - $750k range.

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Household Income

Please note that the buckets used in this visualization were not evenly distributed by ACS when publishing the data.
$82,225
Median Household Income
± $1,120
297k
Number of Households
± 4,189

In 2020, the median household income of the 297k households in Essex County, MA grew to $82,225 from the previous year's value of $79,263.

The following chart displays the households in Essex County, MA distributed between a series of income buckets compared to the national averages for each bucket. The largest share of households have an income in the $200k+ range.

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Property Taxes

$3k+
Average Range

This chart shows the households in Essex County, MA distributed between a series of property tax buckets compared to the national averages for each bucket. In Essex County, MA the largest share of households pay taxes in the $3k+ range.

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Rent vs Own

63.8%
2020 Homeownership
64.2%
2019 Homeownership

In 2020, 63.8% of the housing units in Essex County, MA were occupied by their owner. This percentage declined from the previous year's rate of 64.2%.

This percentage of owner-occupation is lower than the national average of 64.4%. This chart shows the ownership percentage in Essex County, MA compared it's parent and neighboring geographies.

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Commute Time

30.2 minutes
Average Travel Time

Using averages, employees in Essex County, MA have a longer commute time (30.2 minutes) than the normal US worker (26.9 minutes). Additionally, 4.37% of the workforce in Essex County, MA have "super commutes" in excess of 90 minutes.

The chart below shows how the median household income in Essex County, MA compares to that of it's neighboring and parent geographies.

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Commuter Transportation

Most Common Commute in 2020
  1. Drove Alone (73.7%)
  2. Carpooled (8.4%)
  3. Worked At Home (7.57%)

In 2020, 73.7% of workers in Essex County, MA drove alone to work, followed by those who carpooled to work (8.4%) and those who worked at home (7.57%).

The following chart shows the number of households using each mode of transportation over time, using a logarithmic scale on the y-axis to help better show variations in the smaller means of commuting.

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Transportation

Car Ownership

2 cars
Average Number

The following chart displays the households in Essex County, MA distributed between a series of car ownership buckets compared to the national averages for each bucket. The largest share of households in Essex County, MA have 2 cars, followed by false.

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Health

97% of the population of Essex County, MA has health coverage, with 51% on employee plans, 20.9% on Medicaid, 11.5% on Medicare, 13.1% on non-group plans, and 0.615% on military or VA plans.

Per capita personal health care spending in Massachusetts was $10,559 in 2014. This is a 2.78% increase from the previous year ($10,273).

Primary care physicians in Essex County, MA see 1354 patients per year on average, which represents a 3.28% increase from the previous year (1311 patients). Compare this to dentists who see 1087 patients per year, and mental health providers who see 168 patients per year.

Comparing across all counties in the state, Plymouth County has the highest prevalence of diabetes (11.1%). Additionally, Hampden County has the highest prevalence of adult obesity (30.5%)

Patient to Clinician Ratios

1,354 to 1
Patient to Primary Care Physician Ratio in Essex County, MA

Primary care physicians in Essex County, MA see an average of 1,354 patients per year. This represents a 3.28% increase from the previous year (1,311 patients).

The following chart shows how the number of patients seen by primary care physicians has been changing over time in Essex County, MA in comparison to its neighboring geographies.

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Behavioral Health Conditions

Data only available at the state level.
State with the Highest Prevalence
  1. 8.26% of the population affected
  2. 8.13% of the population affected
  3. 7.98% of the population affected

In 2016, West Virginia had the highest prevalence of adults with major depressive episode, with 8.26% of the population affected. The second highest is Arkansas (8.13%), followed by New Hampshire (7.98%).

The following map shows the percent of individuals with major depressive episode by state over multiple years.

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Access and Quality

Data only available at state level.
Most prevalent states
  1. 19.2% of adults
  2. 17.9% of adults
  3. 17.6% of adults

In 2016, Mississippi had the highest prevalence of adults who haven't seen a doctor in the past 12 months due to cost, at 19.2%. It is followed by Texas (17.9%) and Louisiana (17.6%).

The following map shows the prevalence of adults who haven't seen a doctor in the past 12 months due to cost by state over multiple years.

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Health Care Spending

Data is only available at the state level. Showing data for Massachusetts.
$10,559
Total Per Capita Spending on Personal Health Care in Massachusetts
$5,302
Per Enrollee Private Health Insurance Spending on Personal Health Care
$8,922
Per Enrollee Medicaid Spending on Personal Health Care
$11,899
Per Enrollee Medicare Spending on Personal Health Care

Between 2013 and 2014, all personal health care spending per capita in Massachusetts (including private, Medicare, and Medicaid) grew 2.78%, from $10,273 to $10,559.

The following chart shows how this spending changed over time in comparison to Medicaid, Medicare, and private insurance spending, per enrollee.

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Health Care Coverage

2.98%
Uninsured
51%
Employer Coverage
20.9%
Medicaid
11.5%
Medicare
13.1%
Non-Group
0.615%
Military or VA

Between 2019 and 2020, the percent of uninsured citizens in Essex County, MA declined by 1.7% from 3.04% to 2.98%.

The following chart shows how the percent of uninsured individuals in Essex County, MA changed over time compared with the percent of individuals enrolled in various types of health insurance.

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Health Risks

Data available at the county level.
Most at risk counties
  1. 11.1% prevalence
  2. 10.7% prevalence
  3. 10.6% prevalence

Plymouth County has the highest prevalence of diabetes in Massachusetts, at 11.1%.

The following map shows the prevalence of diabetes in Massachusetts by county over multiple years.

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