Pasquotank County, NC

County

Add Comparison
2020 Population
39,775
0.661% 1-year growth
US Senator
Richard Burr
Republican Party
US Senator
Thom Tillis
Republican Party
2020 Median Age
39.6
2.59% 1-year increase
2020 Poverty Rate
12.3%
21.5% 1-year decrease
2020 Median Household Income
$54,439
7.68% 1-year growth
2020 Median Property Value
$166,600
2.15% 1-year growth
2020 Employed Population
16,979
3.14% 1-year growth

About

In 2020, Pasquotank County, NC had a population of 39.8k people with a median age of 39.6 and a median household income of $54,439. Between 2019 and 2020 the population of Pasquotank County, NC grew from 39,514 to 39,775, a 0.661% increase and its median household income grew from $50,558 to $54,439, a 7.68% increase.

The 5 largest ethnic groups in Pasquotank County, NC are White (Non-Hispanic) (54.6%), Black or African American (Non-Hispanic) (35.8%), White (Hispanic) (3.06%), Two+ (Non-Hispanic) (2.51%), and Two+ (Hispanic) (1.78%).

None of the households in Pasquotank County, NC reported speaking a non-English language at home as their primary shared language. This does not consider the potential multi-lingual nature of households, but only the primary self-reported language spoken by all members of the household.

98.8% of the residents in Pasquotank County, NC are U.S. citizens.

The largest universities in Pasquotank County, NC are College of the Albemarle (626 degrees awarded in 2020), Elizabeth City State University (241 degrees), and Mid-Atlantic Christian University (65 degrees).

In 2020, the median property value in Pasquotank County, NC was $166,600, and the homeownership rate was 61.8%.

Most people in Pasquotank County, NC drove alone to work, and the average commute time was 29.2 minutes. The average car ownership in Pasquotank County, NC was 2 cars per household.

geosearchPopulation & Diversity

Pasquotank County, NC is home to a population of 39.8k people, from which 98.8% are citizens. As of 2020, 2.96% of Pasquotank County, NC residents were born outside of the country (1.18k people).

In 2020, there were 1.53 times more White (Non-Hispanic) residents (21.7k people) in Pasquotank County, NC than any other race or ethnicity. There were 14.2k Black or African American (Non-Hispanic) and 1.22k White (Hispanic) residents, the second and third most common ethnic groups.

Citizenship

98.8%
2020 Citizenship
98.4%
2019 Citizenship

As of 2020, 98.8% of Pasquotank County, NC residents were US citizens, which is higher than the national average of 93.4%. In 2019, the percentage of US citizens in Pasquotank County, NC was 98.4%, meaning that the rate of citizenship has been increasing.

The following chart shows US citizenship percentages in Pasquotank County, NC compared to that of it's neighboring and parent geographies.

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

Race and Ethnicity

The 3 largest ethnic groups in Pasquotank County, NC
  1. White (Non-Hispanic)
    21.7k ± 20
  2. Black or African American (Non-Hispanic)
    14.2k ± 312
  3. White (Hispanic)
    1.22k ± 387
5.79%
Hispanic Population
2.3k people

In 2020, there were 1.53 times more White (Non-Hispanic) residents (21.7k people) in Pasquotank County, NC than any other race or ethnicity. There were 14.2k Black or African American (Non-Hispanic) and 1.22k White (Hispanic) residents, the second and third most common ethnic groups.

5.79% of the people in Pasquotank County, NC are hispanic (2.3k people).

The following chart shows the 7 races represented in Pasquotank County, NC as a share of the total population.

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

Global Diversity

The PUMS dataset is not available at the County level, so we are showing data for North Carolina.
Most Common Origin
  1. Mexico
    224,275 ± 11,501 people
  2. India
    74,765 ± 6,689 people
  3. Honduras
    37,815 ± 4,766 people

In 2020, the most common birthplace for the foreign-born residents of North Carolina was Mexico, the natal country of 224,275 North Carolina residents, followed by India with 74,765 and Honduras with 37,815.

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

Foreign-Born Population

2.96%
2020 Foreign-Born Population
1.18k people
3.58%
2019 Foreign-Born Population
1.41k people

As of 2020, 2.96% of Pasquotank County, NC residents (1.18k people) were born outside of the United States, which is lower than the national average of 13.5%. In 2019, the percentage of foreign-born citizens in Pasquotank County, NC was 3.58%, meaning that the rate has been decreasing.

The following chart shows the percentage of foreign-born residents in Pasquotank County, NC compared to that of it's neighboring and parent geographies.

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

Veterans

Most Common Service Period
  1. Gulf War (2001-)
    1,174 ± 308
  2. Vietnam
    719 ± 151
  3. Gulf War (1990s)
    607 ± 214

Pasquotank County, NC has a large population of military personnel who served in Gulf War (2001-), 1.63 times greater than any other conflict.

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

briefcaseEconomy

The economy of Pasquotank County, NC employs 17k people. The largest industries in Pasquotank County, NC are Health Care & Social Assistance (2,437 people), Retail Trade (2,158 people), and Educational Services (1,806 people), and the highest paying industries are Finance & Insurance ($51,314), Manufacturing ($50,922), and Finance & Insurance, & Real Estate & Rental & Leasing ($50,193).

Males in North Carolina have an average income that is 1.32 times higher than the average income of females, which is $49,357. The income inequality in North Carolina (measured using the Gini index) is 0.47, which is lower than than the national average.

Occupations

17k
2020 Value
± 1,093
3.14%
1 Year growth
± 8.31%

From 2019 to 2020, employment in Pasquotank County, NC grew at a rate of 3.14%, from 16.5k employees to 17k employees.

The most common job groups, by number of people living in Pasquotank County, NC, are Sales & Related Occupations (1,806 people), Office & Administrative Support Occupations (1,647 people), and Construction & Extraction Occupations (1,411 people). This chart illustrates the share breakdown of the primary jobs held by residents of Pasquotank County, NC.

View Data
Save Image

Unemployment Insurance Claims

Data is only available at the state level. Showing data for North Carolina.

This chart shows weekly unemployment insurance claims in North Carolina (not-seasonally adjusted) compared with the four states with the most similar impact.

The most recent data point uses Advance State Claims data, which can be revised in subsequent weeks.

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

Employment by Industries

17k
2020 Value
± 1,093
3.14%
1 Year growth
± 8.31%

From 2019 to 2020, employment in Pasquotank County, NC grew at a rate of 3.14%, from 16.5k employees to 17k employees.

The most common employment sectors for those who live in Pasquotank County, NC, are Health Care & Social Assistance (2,437 people), Retail Trade (2,158 people), and Educational Services (1,806 people). This chart shows the share breakdown of the primary industries for residents of Pasquotank County, NC, though some of these residents may live in Pasquotank County, NC and work somewhere else. Census data is tagged to a residential address, not a work address.

View Data
Save Image

Median Earnings by Industry

$42,242
Median earning men ± $2,928
$29,689
Median earning women ± $3,268

The industries with the best median earnings for men in 2020 are Manufacturing ($58,185), Public Administration ($57,349), and Professional, Scientific, & Management, & Administrative & Waste Management Services ($50,524).

The industries with the best median earnings for women in 2020 are Finance & Insurance, & Real Estate & Rental & Leasing ($50,309), Wholesale Trade ($41,094), and Construction ($37,750).

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

Employment by Industry Sector

Data is only available at the state level. Showing data for North Carolina.
Y-Axis
8.45%
Year-over-year growth
Employment change between May 2020 and May 2021

As of May 2021, there are 145M people employed in North Carolina. This represents a 8.45% increase in employment when compared to May 2020.

The following chart shows monthly employment numbers for each industry sector in North Carolina.

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

Establishments by Size

The industries with the most establishments
  1. 430
    Educational Services, Health Care & Social Assistance
  2. 239
    Retail Trade
  3. 229
    Finance & Insurance, and Real Estate, Rental & Leasing

The visualization shows the distribution of establishments by industry and by size according to the number of employees.

View Data
Save Image

Payroll by Industry Sector

The industries with the highest total annual payroll
  1. $235k
    Educational Services, Health Care & Social Assistance
  2. $140k
    Finance & Insurance, and Real Estate, Rental & Leasing
  3. $81.7k
    Manufacturing

The chart shows the total annual payroll and the average annual payroll by industry.

View Data
Save Image

Domestic Production & Consumption

Domestic production and consumption consists of products and services shipped from North Carolina to other states, or from other states to North Carolina.
Top Domestic Production in Dollars
  1. $53.9B
  2. $49B
  3. $48.7B

In 2020, the top outbound North Carolina product (by dollars) was Mixed freight with $53.9B, followed by Machinery ($49B) and Pharmaceuticals ($48.7B).

The following chart shows the share of these products in relation to all outbound North Carolina products.

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

Domestic Trade Growth

Showing data for North Carolina.
$488B
2020 Value in North Carolina
$926B
Projected 2050 Value in North Carolina
89.6% growth

In 2020, total outbound North Carolina trade was $488B. This is expected to increase 89.6% to $926B by 2050.

The following chart shows how the domestic outbound North Carolina trade is projected to change in comparison to its neighboring states.

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

Interstate Trade

Interstate trade consists of products and services shipped from North Carolina to other states, or from other states to North Carolina.
Most Common Trade Partners
  1. $35.1B
  2. $27B
  3. $18.5B

In 2020, the top outbound North Carolina domestic partner for goods and services (by dollars) was South Carolina with $35.1B, followed by Virginia with $27B and Georgia and $18.5B.

The following map shows the amount of trade that North Carolina shares with each state (excluding itself).

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

flagCivics

In the 2020 presidential election, the popular vote in Pasquotank County, NC went to Joseph R Biden Jr. with 49.4% of the vote. The runner-up was Donald J. Trump (49.1%), followed by Jo Jorgensen (0.809%).

Richard Burr and Thom Tillis are the senators currently representing the state of North Carolina. In the United States, senators are elected to 6-year terms with the terms for individual senators staggered.

North Carolina is currently represented by 13 members in the U.S. house, and members of the House of Representives are elected to 2-year terms.

US Senators from North Carolina

Senatorial voting results are only available at the state level. Showing data for North Carolina.
Richard Burr
Senator from North Carolina3
Assumed office on January 3, 2005
Thom Tillis
Senator from North Carolina2
Assumed office on January 3, 2015

Richard Burr and Thom Tillis are the senators currently representing North Carolina.

In the United States, senators are elected to 6-year terms with the terms for individual senators staggered.

The following chart shows elected senators in North Carolina over time, excluding special elections, colored by their political party.

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

US Representatives from North Carolina

North Carolina is currently represented by 13 members in the U.S. house.

Members of the House of Representives are elected to 2-year terms, and the following chart shows the how the members for North Carolina have changed over time starting in 2008.

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart
View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

learningEducation

In 2020, universities in Pasquotank County, NC awarded 932 degrees. The student population of Pasquotank County, NC in 2020 is skewed towards women, with 1,677 male students and 2,998 female students.

Most students graduating from Universities in Pasquotank County, NC are White (548 and 60.5%), followed by Black or African American (245 and 27%), Unknown (48 and 5.3%), and Hispanic or Latino (31 and 3.42%).

The largest universities in Pasquotank County, NC by number of degrees awarded are College of the Albemarle (626 and 67.2%), Elizabeth City State University (241 and 25.9%), and Mid-Atlantic Christian University (65 and 6.97%).

The most popular majors in Pasquotank County, NC are Liberal Arts & Sciences (213 and 22.9%), General Business Administration & Management (50 and 5.36%), and Other Liberal Arts & Sciences, General Studies, & Humanities (44 and 4.72%).

The median tuition costs in Pasquotank County, NC are $15,520 for private four year colleges, and $1,000 and $5,000 respectively, for public four year colleges for in-state students and out-of-state students.

Applicants, Admissions & Enrolled

University
Measure

In 2020 in Pasquotank County, NC, the percentage of applicants admitted was 72.4%, while the percentage of admitted who enrolled was 19.7%. The number of students enrolled in 2020 was 4,675 (35.9% men and 64.1% women).

The line chart  shows the evolution of the percentage of applicants admitted, admitted who enrolled or the number of students enrolled according to the option selected in the upper button.

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

Enrollments by Gender and Races

Universities

In 2020 there were 4,675 students enrolled in Pasquotank County, NC, 35.9% men and 64.1% women.

By race, the largest number of students enrolled was concentrated in White with 2,119 records, of which 65% were women and 35% men.

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

Concentrations

Most Common
  1. 213 degree-majors awarded
  2. 44 degree-majors awarded
  3. 23 degree-majors awarded

In 2020, the most common concentation for Associates Degree recipients in Pasquotank County, NC was Liberal Arts & Sciences with 213 degrees awarded.

This visualization illustrates the percentage of students graduating with a Associates Degree from schools in Pasquotank County, NC according to their major.

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

Universities

Gender
Race
Largest Universities by degrees awarded
  1. 626 degrees awarded
  2. 241 degrees awarded
  3. 65 degrees awarded

In 2020, the institution with the largest number of graduating students was College of the Albemarle with 626 degrees awarded.

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

Student Diversity

University

In 2020, 380 men were awarded degrees from institutions in Pasquotank County, NC, which is 0.688 times less than the 552 female students who received degrees in the same year.

In 2020 the most common race/ethnicity group awarded degrees at institutions was White students. These 548 degrees mean that there were 2.24 times more degrees awarded to White students then the next closest race/ethnicity group, Black or African American, with 245 degrees awarded.

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

Awarded Degrees over Time

The graph shows the evolution of awarded degrees by degrees. Under the paragraphs, the average number of awarded degrees by university in each degree is shown.

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart
View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

Average Net Price by Sector

Universities

Private not-for-profit, 4-year or above ($15,520) is the sector with the highest median state tuition in 2020.

Public, 4-year or above ($2,260) is the sector with the highest median state fee in 2020.

Private not-for-profit, 4-year or above ($1,200) is the sector with the highest average net price of books and supplies.

The graph shows the average net price by sector and year.

View Data
Save Image

Educational Pyramid

Data is only available at the state level. Showing data for North Carolina.
Measure

In 2020, 0.849% of men over 25 years of age had not completed any academic degree (no schooling), while 0.733% of women were in the same situation.

This visualization shows the gender distribution of the population according to the academic level reached.

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

Educational Attainment

Data is only available at the state level. Showing data for North Carolina.
Race

The most common educational levels obtained by the working population in 2020 were High School or Equivalent (2.14M), Some college (1.89M), and Bachelors Degree (1.54M).

This visualization illustrates the percentage distribution of the population according to the highest educational level reached. You can filter the data by race by using the selector above.

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

homeHousing & Living

The median property value in Pasquotank County, NC was $166,600 in 2020, which is 0.725 times smaller than the national average of $229,800. Between 2019 and 2020 the median property value increased from $163,100 to $166,600, a 2.15% increase. The homeownership rate in Pasquotank County, NC is 61.8%, which is approximately the same as the national average of 64.4%.

People in Pasquotank County, NC have an average commute time of 29.2 minutes, and they drove alone to work. Car ownership in Pasquotank County, NC is approximately the same as the national average, with an average of 2 cars per household.

Median household income in Pasquotank County, NC is $54,439. In 2020, the tract with the highest Median Household Income in Pasquotank County, NC was Census Tract 9606 with a value of $75,768, followed by Census Tract 9607.01 and Census Tract 9607.02, with respective values of $68,472 and $56,992.

In 2021, 18.3% of the population was living with severe housing problems in Pasquotank County, NC. From 2014 to 2021, the indicator declined 1.02%.

Property

$166,600
Median Property Value 2020
±$7,862
$9,144
Median Property Taxes
±$659

The following chart display owner-occupied housing units distributed between a series of property tax buckets compared to the national averages for each bucket. In Pasquotank County, NC the largest share of households pay taxes in the $800 - $1,499 range.

The chart underneath the paragraph shows the property taxes in Pasquotank County, NC compared to it's parent and neighbor geographies.

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart
View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

Rent vs Own

61.8%
Homeownership
2020
62.5%
Homeowners with Mortgage
2020

In 2020, 61.8% of the housing units in Pasquotank County, NC were occupied by their owner. This percentage grew from the previous year's rate of 59.6%.

This chart shows the percentage of owner in Pasquotank County, NC compared it's parent and neighboring geographies.

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

Income by Location

Use the dropdown to filter by race/ethnicity.
Race/Ethnicity
Highest Median Household Income (Total)
  1. Census Tract 9606
  2. Census Tract 9607.01
  3. Census Tract 9607.02

In 2020, the tract with the highest Median Household Income (Total) in Pasquotank County, NC was Census Tract 9606 with a value of $75,768, followed by Census Tract 9607.01 and Census Tract 9607.02, with respective values of $68,472 and $56,992.

The following map shows all of the tracts in Pasquotank County, NC colored by their Median Household Income (Total).

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

Household Income

Please note that the buckets used in this visualization were not evenly distributed by ACS when publishing the data.
$54,439
Median Household Income
± $3,369
14.8k
Number of Households
± 875

In 2020, the median household income of the 14.8k households in Pasquotank County, NC grew to $54,439 from the previous year's value of $50,558.

The following chart displays the households in Pasquotank County, NC distributed between a series of income buckets compared to the national averages for each bucket. The largest share of households have an income in the $75k - $100k range.

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

Wage Distribution

The closest comparable wage GINI for Pasquotank County, NC is from North Carolina.
0.47
2020 Wage GINI in North Carolina
0.472
2019 Wage GINI in North Carolina

In 2020, the income inequality in North Carolina was 0.47 according to the GINI calculation of the wage distribution. Income inequality had a 0.395% decline from 2019 to 2020, which means that wage distribution grew somewhat more even. The GINI for North Carolina was lower than than the national average of 0.478. In other words, wages are distributed more evenly in North Carolina in comparison to the national average.

This chart shows the number of workers in North Carolina across various wage buckets compared to the national average.

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

Commuter Transportation

Most Common Commute in 2020
  1. Drove Alone (80.7%)
  2. Carpooled (10.7%)
  3. Worked At Home (4.77%)

In 2020, 80.7% of workers in Pasquotank County, NC drove alone to work, followed by those who carpooled to work (10.7%) and those who worked at home (4.77%).

The following chart shows the number of households using each mode of transportation over time, using a logarithmic scale on the y-axis to help better show variations in the smaller means of commuting.

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

Commute Time

29.2 minutes
Average Travel Time

Using averages, employees in Pasquotank County, NC have a longer commute time (29.2 minutes) than the normal US worker (26.9 minutes). Additionally, 4.59% of the workforce in Pasquotank County, NC have "super commutes" in excess of 90 minutes.

The chart below shows how the median household income in Pasquotank County, NC compares to that of it's neighboring and parent geographies.

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart
View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

Car Ownership

2 cars
Average Number

The following chart displays the households in Pasquotank County, NC distributed between a series of car ownership buckets compared to the national averages for each bucket. The largest share of households in Pasquotank County, NC have 2 cars.

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

Severe Housing Problems

In 2021, 18.3% of the population was living with severe housing problems in Pasquotank County, NC. From 2014 to 2021, the indicator declined 1.02%.

The graph shows the trend of the percentage of the population living with severe housing problems.

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

Poverty & Diversity

12.3% of the population for whom poverty status is determined in Pasquotank County, NC (4.55k out of 36.9k people) live below the poverty line, a number that is lower than the national average of 12.8%. The largest demographic living in poverty are Females 55 - 64, followed by Males 55 - 64 and then Females 25 - 34.

The most common racial or ethnic group living below the poverty line in Pasquotank County, NC is Black, followed by White and Hispanic.

The Census Bureau uses a set of money income thresholds that vary by family size and composition to determine who classifies as impoverished. If a family's total income is less than the family's threshold than that family and every individual in it is considered to be living in poverty.

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

Children in Poverty

In 2021, 24.1% of the children was living in poverty in Pasquotank County, NC. From 2014 to 2021, the indicator declined 4.3%.

The graph shows the trend of the percentage of the children living in poverty.

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

Crimes & Accidents

Indicator

In 2021, the number of reported violent crimes offenses per 100,000 population was 382 in Pasquotank County, NC. From 2014 to 2021, the indicator declined 23.3 per 100,000 population.

The graph shows the trend in the number of reported violent crimes offenses per 100,000 population.

Error: TypeError: measure_.at is not a function

pulseHealth

88.2% of the population of Pasquotank County, NC has health coverage, with 36% on employee plans, 16.9% on Medicaid, 12.3% on Medicare, 17.9% on non-group plans, and 4.93% on military or VA plans.

Per capita personal health care spending in North Carolina was $7,264 in 2014. This is a 3.37% increase from the previous year ($7,027).

Primary care physicians in Pasquotank County, NC see 1586 patients per year on average, which represents a 7.74% increase from the previous year (1472 patients). Compare this to dentists who see 2096 patients per year, and mental health providers who see 463 patients per year.

By gender, of the total number of insured persons, 47.3% were men and 52.7% were women.

Daily New Cases by Date

Showing data at the state level for North Carolina. Hospitalization data for some states may be delayed or not reported.
Y-Axis

This chart shows the number of COVID-19 daily new cases by date in North Carolina, as a 7-day rolling average, compared with the four states with the most similar number of confirmed cases.

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

Patient to Clinician Ratios

1,586 to 1
Patient to Primary Care Physician Ratio in Pasquotank County, NC

Primary care physicians in Pasquotank County, NC see an average of 1,586 patients per year. This represents a 7.74% increase from the previous year (1,472 patients).

The following chart shows how the number of patients seen by primary care physicians has been changing over time in Pasquotank County, NC in comparison to its neighboring geographies.

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

Community Mobility

Data is only available at the state level. Showing data for North Carolina.

This chart presents movement trends over time in the state of North Carolina across different categories of places such as retail and recreation, groceries and pharmacies, parks, transit stations, workplaces, and residential.

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

Health Care Diversity

In 2020, insured persons according to age ranges were distributed in 25.4% under 18 years, 19.9% between 18 and 34 years, 37.7% between 35 and 64 years, and 17% over 64 years.

By gender, of the total number of insured persons, 47.3% were men and 52.7% were women.

The following chart shows the number of people with health coverage by gender.

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

Uninsured People

11.8%
Uninsured
36%
Employer Coverage
16.9%
Medicaid
12.3%
Medicare
17.9%
Non-Group
4.93%
Military or VA

Between 2019 and 2020, the percent of uninsured citizens in Pasquotank County, NC declined by 0.883% from 11.9% to 11.8%.

The following chart shows how the percent of uninsured individuals in Pasquotank County, NC changed over time compared with the percent of individuals enrolled in various types of health insurance.

View Data
Save Image
Add Data to Cart

Health Outcomes

Indicator

In 2021, the number of deaths among residents under age 18 per 100,000 population was 53.9 in Pasquotank County, NC.

The graphic shows the trend of the indicator in Pasquotank County, NC.

Error: TypeError: measure_.at is not a function

Health Behaviors

Indicator

In 2021, the percentage of the adult population (age 18 and older) that reports a body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to 30 kg/m2 (age-adjusted) was 42.3% in Pasquotank County, NC.

The graphic shows the trend of the indicator in Pasquotank County, NC.

Error: TypeError: measure_.at is not a function

Clinical Care

Indicator

In 2021, the percentage of population under age 65 without health insurance was 11.6% in Pasquotank County, NC.

The graphic shows the trend of the indicator in Pasquotank County, NC.

Error: TypeError: measure_.at is not a function